They are written by experts, and have been published in more than 25 languages worldwide. The series began in , and now represents a wide variety of topics in history, philosophy, religion, science, and the humanities. Over the next few years it will grow to a library of around volumes — a Very Short Introduction to everything from ancient Egypt and Indian philosophy to conceptual art and cosmology. Very Short Introductions available now: Matthews and David T. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organization. If contacted they will be pleased to rectify these at the earliest opportunity. Will Cuppy, How to become extinct It is hard to make sense of the history of life on Earth. Neanderthal man, mammoths, dinosaurs, ammonites, trilobites. These impressions come from many sources.

Digging In The Dirt V

Claims of a Transitional Ape How about Homo habilis? Fossils found in the Olduvai Gorge in Kenya were classified as Homo habilis. However, these fossils found in Africa turn out to be just as ape-like as Lucy in their structure, in fact, probably just another variety of Australopithicines.

Because most carbon will have decayed after 50, years, the carbon isotope ratio is mainly useful for dating fossils and artifacts younger than this. It cannot be used to determine the age of.

January[ edit ] 2 January — A study published in Science shows evidence that a protein partially assembles another protein without genetic instructions. Defying textbook science, amino acids the building blocks of a protein can be assembled by another protein and without genetic instructions. Three of the newly confirmed exoplanets were found to orbit within habitable zones of their related stars: The star is expected to reappear in about years.

Dearcmhara shawcrossi lived in the early to mid- Jurassic about million years ago. By the year , almost nobody under the age of 80 will die of cancer, according to a study by University College London. Ceres , a dwarf planet , as viewed by the Dawn spacecraft on 19 February By contrast, regions much further away would have experienced less intense, but longer-lived heat levels up to seven minutes , long enough to ignite plant matter.

This challenges previous theories about global firestorms in the aftermath of the event. Ingredient in green tea found that may protect against oral cancer. This overturns what was previously considered to be a well understood phenomenon, and has the potential to increase safety when handling reactive metals. According to NASA, no life as we know it could exist on these hot exoplanets, due to their close orbital distances to the host star.

It will provide the most accurate, highest-resolution global measurements of soil moisture ever obtained from space. If passed by the House of Lords , the UK will become the first country in the world to offer this medical procedure, which can be used to treat mitochondrial diseases.

The Handy Dinosaur Answer Book

February 17, Chuck Leave a comment Jensen, Population Differences In Intelligence: The Science of Mental Ability The relationship of the g factor to a number of biological variables and its relationship to the size of the white-black differences on various cognitive tests i.

Join the earliest discovered fossils are of _____ dating back to _____ years ago. best remain calm no matter what youre looking for, you can find know that what .

Proboscidea Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus initially defined the class. Since Simpson’s classification, the paleontological record has been recalibrated, and the intervening years have seen much debate and progress concerning the theoretical underpinnings of systematization itself, partly through the new concept of cladistics.

Though field work gradually made Simpson’s classification outdated, it remains the closest thing to an official classification of mammals. The three largest orders in numbers of species are Rodentia: The next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates including the apes , monkeys and lemurs ; the Cetartiodactyla including whales and even-toed ungulates ; and the Carnivora which includes cats , dogs , weasels , bears , seals and allies.

These were grouped into 1, genera , families and 29 orders. In an influential paper, Timothy Rowe defined Mammalia phylogenetically as the crown group of mammals, the clade consisting of the most recent common ancestor of living monotremes echidnas and platypuses and therian mammals marsupials and placentals and all descendants of that ancestor.

Ambondro is more closely related to monotremes than to therian mammals while Amphilestes and Amphitherium are more closely related to the therians; as fossils of all three genera are dated about million years ago in the Middle Jurassic , this is a reasonable estimate for the appearance of the crown group. Kemp has provided a more traditional definition: McKenna and Susan K.

Dinosaurs a Visual Encyclopedia

The coast and river valleys were green, but much of the interior was desert. A fossil is the preserved remains or trace of an ancient animal or plant. Most fossilized animals have lain buried for millions of years. A dinosaur dies and falls into the muddy bank of a river. Fossils are usually found in rock but may also be found in mud or gravel. These have been dated to 3.

Paleontologists have found traces of animal life dating back at least million years. Those earliest animals may have been like today’s sponges, rooted to the sea floor and filtering food Find this Pin and more on Natural History by Warren Hansen.

Human timeline and Nature timeline The first fully terrestrial vertebrates were amniotes — their eggs had internal membranes that allowed the developing embryo to breathe but kept water in. This allowed amniotes to lay eggs on dry land, while amphibians generally need to lay their eggs in water a few amphibians, such as the Surinam toad , have evolved other ways of getting around this limitation. The first amniotes apparently arose in the middle Carboniferous from the ancestral reptiliomorphs.

The times of origin are difficult to know, because vertebrate fossils from the late Carboniferous are very rare, and therefore the actual first occurrences of each of these types of animal might have been considerably earlier than the first fossil. Synapsid skulls are identified by the distinctive pattern of the holes behind each eye , which served the following purposes: Having attachment points further away from the jaw made it possible for the muscles to be longer and therefore to exert a strong pull over a wide range of jaw movement without being stretched or contracted beyond their optimum range.

Among the other large pelycosaurs were Dimetrodon grandis and Edaphosaurus cruciger. Therapsids[ edit ] Therapsids descended from pelycosaurs in the middle Permian and took over their position as the dominant land vertebrates.

Ten Reasons Evolution is Wrong

Post by Big Bunny on Nov 17, Europe is where the oldest dogs are found. In related research last May, Wayne and his colleagues reported at the Biology of Genomes meeting in New York the results of their comparison of the complete nuclear genomes of three recent wolf breeds from the Middle East, East Asia and Europe , two ancient dog breeds and the boxer dog breed.

All the wolves formed their own group, and all the dogs formed another group. For the current study in Science, the researchers studied 10 ancient “wolf-like” animals and eight “dog-like” animals, mostly from Europe.

Fossils have been found around the world of a small rodent-like creature that lived million years ago. From its teeth alone (diverse with frontal incisors, middle canines, and back molars) we can intelligently infer that it was one of the first mammals.

A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter. Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment. Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection. A graph of the average fitness of a population in relation to the frequencies of genotypes in it.

Peaks on the landscape correspond to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is high, valleys to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is low. Also called a fitness surface. A behavior has adaptive logic if it tends to increase the number of offspring that an individual contributes to the next and following generations. If such a behavior is even partly genetically determined, it will tend to become widespread in the population.

Then, even if circumstances change such that it no longer provides any survival or reproductive advantage, the behavior will still tend to be exhibited — unless it becomes positively disadvantageous in the new environment. The diversification, over evolutionary time, of a species or group of species into several different species or subspecies that are typically adapted to different ecological niches for example, Darwin’s finches.

The term can also be applied to larger groups of organisms, as in “the adaptive radiation of mammals. A mode of coping with competition or environmental conditions on an evolutionary time scale. Species adapt when succeeding generations emphasize beneficial characteristics. A person who believes that the existence of a god or creator and the nature of the universe is unknowable.

2015 in science

Layers of rock All rocks started as molten magma. Tectonic plate movements push up great mountain ranges, which are immediately subject to erosion by wind and water. The eroded grains are carried downstream and deposited in rivers, lakes, and seas. The rocks formed from these accumulated sediments are called sedimentary rocks. Extreme heat and pressure can transform existing igneous and sedimentary rocks, bending and baking them to form metamorphic rocks.

One of the properties of fossils is to provide unique ontogenies that have the potential to inform us of developmental patterns and processes in the past.

Potential of abundant, environmentally harmless energy technology , which already exists My strategy for manifesting that energy event for humanity’s and the planet’s benefit. I w as born in In that same year, I had my cultural and mystical awakenings. During my second year of college, I had my first existential crisis and a paranormal event changed my studies from science to business.

I s till held my energy dreams, however, and in , eight years after that first paranormal event, I had a second one that suddenly caused me to move up the coast from Los Angeles to Seattle, where I landed in the middle of what is arguably the greatest attempt yet made to bring alternative energy to the American marketplace. That effort was killed by the local electric industry , which saw our technology as a threat to its revenues and profits, and my wild ride began.

The owner of the Seattle business left the state to rebuild his effort. I followed him to Boston and soon became his partner. M y partner’s experiences in Seattle radicalized him. My use of “radical” intends to convey the original ” going to the root ” meaning.

Transitional Forms That Never Existed

Chapter 9 – The Fossil Record [ ] Book: The Evolution and Extinction of Species. George Gaylord Simpson was “the most influential palaeontologist of the mid-twentieth century Fossils and the History of Life. By George Gaylord Simpson. Scientific American Books,

A mysterious creature that lived on Earth over half a billion years ago has now been proven an animal. “The fossil fat molecules that we’ve found prove that animals were large and abundant million years ago, “These fossils were located in the middle of cliffs of the White Sea that are 60 to meters [ – feet] high.

The following discussion points out where in the seventh chapter this occurs. Paragraphs 1 and 2 discuss whether the supposed ancestors of man should be called apes or not. Paleontologists use the term “ape” in a technical sense that includes not only today’s gibbons, orangutans, chimpanzees and gorillas, but fossil apelike forms as well. Creation’s author considers the point whether the supposed ancestors of man could be called apes to be very important.

He realizes that evolutionists generally take pains to say that man evolved from an apelike ancestor, not a modern ape, because the apes of several million years ago were not the apes of today and no one knows for certain what any supposed relationships are. In other words, evolutionists do not say that man evolved from gibbons, orangutans, chimpanzees or gorillas, but that they all have common, but unknown, apelike ancestors. In support of the author’s contention, paragraph 2 says: True, some evolutionists do not feel that these theoretical ancestors of man should rightly be called “apes.

Superscript 2 in the quotation refers to the book Lucy: The Beginnings of Humankind, p. The author, Donald Johanson, said: What Dubois hoped to find was a “missing link.

Evolution of fish

Hominidae great ape ancestors speciate from the ancestors of the gibbon lesser apes. It had the special adaptations for tree climbing as do present-day humans and other great apes: Both chimpanzees and humans have a larynx that repositions during the first two years of life to a spot between the pharynx and the lungs, indicating that the common ancestors have this feature, a precondition for vocalized speech in humans.

Speciation may have begun shortly after 10 Ma, but late admixture between the lineages may have taken place until after 5 Ma. Candidates of Hominina or Homininae species which lived in this time period include Ouranopithecus c. Ardipithecus Ardipithecus is, or may be, a very early hominin genus tribe Hominini and subtribe Hominina.

One of the oldest known bird feathers was found in amber dating back to the Cretaceous Period ( to million years ago, at the end of the Mesozoic Period). The feather stem and fibers were perfectly preserved, and it was even established which species of bird the feather belonged to.

Although organisms also present in the Cambrian were numerous in the Ordovician, a variety of new types including cephalopods, corals including rugose and tabulate forms , bryozoans, crinoids, graptolites, gastropods, and bivalves flourished. Ordovican communities typically displayed a higher ecological complexity than Cambrian communities due to the greater diversity of organisms. However, as in the Cambrian, life in the Ordovician continued to be restricted to the seas.

This extinction, cited as the second most devastating extinction to marine communities in Earth history, caused the disappearance of one third of all brachiopod and bryozoan families, as well as numerous groups of conodonts, trilobites, and graptolites. Much of the reef-building fauna was also decimated. In total, more than one hundred families of marine invertebrates perished in this extinction. Brachiopods, crinoids, corals; primitive fish.

History of Life – A Very Short Introduction

Seeing Tiktaalik is seeing our history as fish. Neil Shubin , Your Inner Fish: A Journey into the 3. The history of life is a story of massive removal followed by differentiation within a few surviving stocks, not the tale of steadily increasing excellence, complexity, and diversity. Stephen Jay Gould , Wonderful Life It is an exceptional fate for an animal or plant to die under just the right circumstances for fossilization. Scientists look at this situation in much the same way as we did earlier when we discussed the connection between cigarette smoking and lung cancer.

Zircons dated at billion years were reported from the same site a decade ago, but the new-found zircon grain is more than million years older than any other known sample, giving scientists a rare window to the earliest period of the Earth.

One of the millions ofcomplete foot forms encountered picture: As a result of mutations, oddly shaped, deformed structures will emerge—somewhere between gills and lungs, fins and legs, scales and feathers, feet and wings, a four-legged posture and an upright one, crippled and with a great many abnormalities.. Yet not a single axample of a transitional form has ever been found. Imaginary transitional forms which evolutionists claim must exist pictures: None of them are at transitional stages, as shown in this picture.

This fact is an important proof that evolution never took place. Imaginary transitional forms, like those above, never existed. Moreover, evolutionists hypothesize that this process will last for millions of years. Therefore, the number of such deformed transitional individuals will be much greater than the number of completed species, and such in-between fossils should be those most frequently encountered. This means that every organ, limb, and component of the species was also formed in stages until the final form of that species emerged at last.

Consider the skull, for example. All the creatures today and all those that once lived in the past possess flawless, smooth, symmetrical skulls with no deformations at all. According to the claims of evolutionists, however, skulls must have gone through a great many tentative stages until the first flawless one emerged. Skulls would have to assume a large number of asymmetrical forms before taking on a symmetrical appearance.